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Benjamin Ward
Benjamin Ward

Translating For The Media : Papers From The International Conference Languages The Media, Berlin, No


At international level, it can be said that AVT in general and subtitling in particular are in a good state of health. There have been numerous conferences on AVT, with their emphasis generally on subtitling, since a great deal of speakers are from countries in the north of Europe where subtitling is the most common practice of AVT. Most of these contributions have been published in proceedings. Without wanting to be exhaustive, it is worth mentioning the following:




Translating For The Media : Papers From The International Conference Languages The Media, Berlin, No



It is also worth highlighting the creation in 1995 of the European Association for Studies in Screen Translation (ESIST), which serves as a meeting and reference point for researchers, teachers and professionals of AVT. Despite the inclusion of the adjective European in its name, the association has a clear international vocation, as shown by the membership of people from other corners of the world, such as America, Asia and Australia. One of the most ambitious projects that the association has carried out has been its International Comparative Subtitling Project. Three short scenes from different genres were distributed to companies from all over the world with the aim of profiling the different national practices in subtitling. They were asked to subtitle the three scenes, applying the same conventions that they usually apply when subtitling their programmes. They were also asked to answer a short questionnaire. Around 50 companies worldwide took part in the project, representing a total of 18 languages and more than 20 different countries. The material is available for those interested in using it for research purposes and can be obtained by contacting the secretary of ESIST (www.esist.org).


Interest in AVT has brought about the creation in 1999 of the Seminario de Estudios sobre la Traducción Audiovisual y Multimedia (SETAM), a thematic group that brings together five Catalan speaking universities with interests on the research, teaching and professional dimensions of AVT. The association is open to people from other national and international universities (www.vives.org/setam).


It is one of the largest international conferences on interpreting and translation in the world that brings together academic scholars, researchers and professionals from around the globe. It provides a platform for academics, researchers and practitioners to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of Interpreting & Translation. As one of the leading conferences for presenting research on interpreting and translation studies, it provides an excellent opportunity for participants from around the world to exchange new ideas and recent developments in the field. More info: www.icit.org


The ELIA conference is an international event that brings together professionals from all over the world to discuss the state of digital content and how it can be used to improve business. More info: elia-association.org


The 2023 5th International Conference on Natural Language Processing is the premier translation forum for the presentation of new research and development results in all aspects of natural language processing. The conference covers all aspects of natural language processing including, but not limited to: speech processing, machine translation and translation aids, information extraction and text mining, computational linguistics and computational semantics, morphology and syntax, parsing, grammar engineering and checking, discourse analysis, multimodal interfaces in NLP, machine learning for NLP. The conference solicits original papers from both academia and industry covering significant advances in NLP. More info: www.icnlp.net


This conference will explore how multilingualism has shaped the ways in which the English-speaking world has been understood and represented from the early modern period to the present day. The focus of this conference is on literary translations from one language into another (in particular, from French to English). It will bring together scholars of literature, cultural studies and history who are interested in analyzing how translators have worked with a variety of languages and linguistic communities in order to translate texts into English. More info: www.iatis.org


The International Conference on Languages, Literature and Translation Studies aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from all over the world to present ongoing research results and advanced new ideas in the field of Linguistics. The conference welcomes high-quality submissions that address current issues in the following areas: languages, literature, translation studies, etc. More info: bcla.org


The American Translators Association (ATA) is the largest professional organization for translators, interpreters, and localization professionals in the United States. It has more than 6,000 members worldwide who come from over 100 countries and work in more than 160 languages. The ATA's annual conference is designed to be an opportunity for translators from around the world to come together, learn from one another, share ideas, network and have fun. More info: www.atanet.org


Journal of Italian Cinema & Media Studies is an English-language forum for theoretical, methodological and critical debate on Italian film and media production, reception and consumption. It provides a platform for dialogue between academics, filmmakers, cinema and media professionals. This peer-reviewed journal invites submissions of scholarly articles relating to the artistic features, cultural themes, international influence and history of Italian film and media. Furthermore, the journal intends to revive a critical discussion on the auteurs, revisit the historiography of Italian cinema and celebrate the dynamic role played by new directors. The journal includes a book and film review section as well as notes on Italian film festivals abroad and international conference reports.


JICMS is an English-language forum for theoretical, methodological and critical debate on Italian film and media production, reception and consumption. It provides a platform for dialogue between academics, filmmakers and cinema and media professionals. This peer-reviewed journal invites submissions of scholarly articles relating to the artistic features, cultural themes, international influence and history of Italian film and media. Furthermore, the journal intends to revive a critical discussion on the auteurs, revisit the historiography of Italian cinema and celebrate the dynamic role played by new directors. The journal includes a book and film review section as well as notes on Italian film festivals abroad and international conference reports.


For the present purpose, we adopted a broad understanding of digital media, ranging from general internet access to the use of specific social media platforms, including exposure to certain types of content on these platforms. To be considered as a valid digital media variable in our review, information or discussion forums must be hosted via the internet or need to describe specific features of online communication. For example, we considered the online outlets of traditional newspapers or TV channels as digital source of political information but not the original traditional media themselves. We provide an overview of digital media variables present in our review sample in Fig. 1d and discriminate in our analyses between the two overarching types of digital media: internet, broadly defined, on the one hand and social media in particular on the other hand.


Fourth, we observed consistent detrimental associations for a number of variables. Specifically, the associations with trust in institutions were overwhelmingly pointing in directions detrimental to a functioning democracy. Measures of hate, polarization and populism were also widely reported to have detrimental associations with digital media use in the clear majority of articles. Likewise, increased digital media use was often associated with a greater exposure to misinformation. Finally, we also found that digital media were associated with homophily in social networks in detrimental ways (mostly measured on social media, and here especially on Twitter), but the pattern of evidence was a little less consistent. Differences in the consistency of results were also reflected when broken down along associated digital media variables (see insets in Fig. 2). For instance, both trust and polarization measures were consistently associated with media use across types of digital media ranging from social media to political information online; in contrast, results for homophily were concentrated on social media and especially on Twitter, while measurements of news exposure were mostly concentrated on political information online.This points not only to different operationalizations of related outcome measures, such as diverse information exposure and homophilic network structures, but also to differences between the distinct domains of digital media in which these very related phenomena are measured. Similar observations can be made when separating associations between general types of digital media: social media vs internet more broadly (Supplementary Fig. 1).


To assess study quality and risk of bias, we additionally coded important methodological aspects of the studies, specifically, the sampling method, sample size and transparency indicators, such as competing interest, open data practices and pre-registrations. In Fig. 5, we show an excerpt from that analysis. Different sampling methods naturally result in different sample sizes as shown in Fig. 5a,b. Furthermore, behavioural data are much more prevalent for studies that look at detrimental outcomes, such as polarization and echo chambers. Classic surveys with probability samples or quota samples, in contrast, are often used to examine beneficial outcome measures such as trust and participation (Fig. 5c,d). Overall, however, no coherent pattern emerges in terms of the reported directions of associations. If anything, large probabilistic samples report relatively less beneficial associations for both types of outcomes (Fig. 5). Generally, different types of data have different advantages, such as probability and quota samples approximating more closely the ideal of representativeness, whereas the observation of actual behaviour on social media escaping the potential downsides of self-reporting. A potential blind spot in studies working with behavioural data from social media, inaccessible to both us and the original authors of the studies, is the selection of data provided by platforms. Therefore, it is tremendously important for researchers to get unrestricted access or, at least, transparent provision of random samples of data by platforms. The selection of users into the platforms, however, remains an open issue for behavioural data as it is often unclear who the active users are and why they are active online. We find that political outcome measures studied with behavioural data appear to show quite distinct results compared with those studied with large-scale survey data. Combining both data types would probably maximize the chances for reliable conclusions about the impact of digital media on democracy.


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